It is proposed that the photon is the sole elementary particle in nature; energy consists of helical wave photons and matter of orbital interlocking photons; gravitons are spinning linear wave photons which are emitted at a constant rate to preserve matter; the uneven transmission of gravitons causes the gravitational force and that the gravitational lens is a misnomer.
In my previous papers: "Helical Particle Waves" and "Frames of Reference", Einstein's theories of relativity were redefined. The present paper will build on these concepts and combine them with several new proposed theorems, in an effort to develop a Unified Field Theory.
MASS AND ENERGY ARE TWO DIFFERENT MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SAME THING
All bodies radiate and absorb energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation which consists of helical wave photons(1). Each body also radiates gravitons at a rate which is independent of its temperature or the temperature of its surroundings. We also know that, in the case of nuclear fission or fusion, for example, mass is transmuted into pure energy (helical wave photons), which raises the question: "What actually happens when mass is converted into energy or conversely, when energy is converted back into mass?" To this end, it is proposed that the photon is the single elementary particle or building block in nature, i.e. both mass and energy consist of photons.
All photons have two unique characteristics:
- they have a quantum mass; and
- they are always in motion.
In other words, it is proposed that all subatomic particles, including electrons, are in reality uniquely structured clusters of kinetic spinning photons. For example, a neutron consists of x photons. Consequently, the mass of a neutron is equal to x times the mass of a photon. When the neutron is totally converted into energy it will consist of x photons which have the velocity and spin which the photons had when they made up the neutron, i.e. all mass has energy and all energy has mass.
In addition, the neutron as a whole has a temperature which means that it gyrates when it is part of a solid mass, and has a helical momentum and spin when it speeds along as a relativistic neutron.
But, you may ask, I thought that a photon had no mass? The Compton effect tells us otherwise.
THE COMPTON EFFECT(2)
In Compton's experiment an incident x-ray photon is deflected in its path and loses some of its kinetic energy, after striking a stationary electron which it causes to recoil.
Now Compton explained his experimental results by postulating that "the incoming x-ray beam was not a wave but an assembly of photons of energy and that these photons experienced billiard-ball-like collisions with the free electrons in the scattering block. The "recoil" photons emerging from the block constituted, in his view, the scattered radiation. Since the incident photon transfers some of its energy to the electron with which it collides, the scattered photon must have a lower energy E'; it must therefore have a lower frequency , which implies a larger wavelength
You will notice that this explanation is self-contradictory, since it is impossible for the x-ray beam not to be a wave, but just an assembly of photons, while at the same time have this assembly of photons exhibit a frequency and a wavelength, unless one subscribes to the helical particle wave theorem.
In reality, of course, the x-ray beam is both a wave and an assembly of photons, since it consists of helical wave photons of quantum mass.
Consequently, the scattered photon has a lower energy because, even though its linear velocity component remains unchanged, its spin frequency is reduced, causing it to have a lower (helical wave) frequency and a longer wavelength.
In other words, as shown above, as well as in other more recent experiments, a photon does have inertial mass.
ORBITAL INTERLOCKING PHOTON STRUCTURES
So what keeps matter from flying apart if it is made up out of moving spinning photons?
It is proposed that matter consists of pairs of orbital spinning photons which interlock with each other as shown in Figure l*.
Schematic, three-dimensional view of
4 pairs of orbital photons
(2), (3), (4) and (5) that all interlock with a single pair of orbital photons (1).
Schematic, three-dimensional view of
4 pairs of orbital photons
* There may be alternative ways in which orbital photons interlock.
Each orbital photon pair interlocks with 4 other orbital photon pairs and so on, until they form a photon cluster which, depending on its structure and size, becomes one or another of the nucleons.
The interlocking of orbital photon pairs produces what is commonly referred to as "the strong (nuclear) force".
This explains why: "The 'strong force' has a short range. This means that the attractive force between pairs of nucleons drops rapidly to zero for nucleon separations greater than a certain critical value. This in turn means that, except in the smallest nuclei, a given nucleon cannot interact with all the other nucleons in the nucleus, but only with a few of its nearest neighbours. By contrast, the Coulomb force is not a short-range force. A given proton in a nucleus, exerts a Coulomb repulsion on all the other protons, no matter how large their separation".(3)
Since all nucleons have orbital photons on their surface which lack their full complement of interlocking orbital photons, these become the sites where an orbital photon pair can bridge the gap between adjacent nucleons and link them together, providing they are in close enough proximity to each other.
This is similar to a chemical bond which results when two particles share one or more orbital electrons.
THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE
When we study the electromagnetic spectrum, we find that the shorter the wavelength and amplitude and the higher the frequency, the more penetrating a helical photon wave becomes. Ultimately, as the wavelength of the helical photon wave approaches zero, we are left with a rapidly spinning photon which travels at the speed of light C in a given electromagnetic frame of reference or EFOR. We shall name these rapidly spinning photons "Gravitons".
Figure 2 summarizes the electromagnetic or helical photon wave spectrum.
The electromagnetic or helical photon wave spectrum
Next, it is proposed that gravitons possess the following characteristics:
- All bodies emit gravitons at a constant rate which is proportional to the mass of the body. In other words, the rate at which a body radiates gravitons is independent of its temperature as it depends solely on its mass.
- Due to their infinitesimal wavelength and high frequency, graviton rays are all penetrating, i.e. once a graviton is emitted, nothing can stop it, other than an encounter with another graviton. In other words, all matter is completely transparent to graviton rays.
- A (spherical) mass will emit gravitons equally in all directions away from its centre of gravity, as a result of the interaction or collisions between the gravitons, according to "the principle of least action", i.e. the gravitons travel down the graviton field gradient.
- When a body emits a graviton, it is instantly accelerated to the speed of light C. Since the graviton has a minimal (quantum) mass, the emitting body will experience a reactive force, as per Newton's third law: "To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction". (4)
- Finally, since a body emits gravitons equally in all directions away from its centre of gravity, it follows that the back pressure generated by the emission of gravitons is completely balanced, i.e. the body will not experience a resultant force in any one direction.
Figure 3 is a schematic cross-section of a spherical mass which illustrates how each progressively larger concentric spherical layer emits its share of gravitons.
Schematic cross-section of a spherical mass
Next, let us suppose that we cut the spherical mass in two along plane A-A and move the two halves an infinitely small distance apart. It is clear that, in this instance, the halves will be forced back together as a result of the cumulative back pressure of the gravitons, as they are being emitted by each half. Moreover, the gravitational force which pushes the two halves together will be proportional to the mass of each half of the original spherical mass. Next, as we begin to move the two halves further apart, each half will emit an increasing number of its gravitons in the general direction of the other half, with the result that the gravitational force between the two halves becomes progressively weaker.
Ultimately, once the two halves are an infinite distance apart, each half will once more emit gravitons equally in all directions and consequently, the gravitational attraction between the two halves will cease.
It should be noted that, in the above explanation, it does not matter at what angle the spherical mass is cut in two. Nor does it matter whether the body is cut into equal parts. In the latter case of course, the attraction between the parts becomes progressively less the more unequal the parts are.
In the preceding discussion, no mention is made regarding the direction of spin of the gravitons, since this does not effect the gist of the argument.
THE PRESERVATION OF MASS
As previously mentioned, all atoms or molecules vibrate to a greater or lesser extend, depending on the orbital frequency of their thermal electrons.
If the thermal electrons radiate more infrared helical wave photons than they absorb, they will slow down and the body will cool down and vice versa. But what about the orbital interlocking photons, what prevents them from slowing down?
To this end, it is proposed that it is the emission of gravitons which keeps the atomic machine from slowing down. That is to say, at any point in time a tiny fraction of the orbital interlocking photons that constitute a body slow down to the point where their orbits collapse, which in turn causes them to be emitted as spinning photons or gravitons. It is the resultant reactive impulses produced by the decaying orbital photons which provide the needed energy to keep the rest of the orbital photons from decaying.
In other words, part of the kinetic and binding energy of the collapsing orbital photon pair goes to speed up the orbital photon pairs with which it interlocked while the remaining portion goes to increase the spin of the decaying orbital photons and towards their emission at the speed of light C.
It further follows that each collapsing orbital photon pair decays into two gravitons which are emitted in opposite direction to each other, perpendicular to their collapsing orbital plane, causing both to spin either in a clockwise direction or in a counterclockwise direction, depending on their original spin direction.
Consequently, a small amount of mass is continuously consumed or sacrificed, in order to preserve the bulk of it.
This is why a body will continue to emit gravitons at a constant rate even though its temperature may be near absolute zero. Or, to coin a phrase; "Gravitons are the exhaust of the photon engine that powers the atomic system". Equally important, gravitons are also responsible for the gravitational force which makes life on earth possible.
THE GRAVITATIONAL LENS
If an object can only experience a gravitational force because it emits more gravitons away from a neighbouring body, which floods it with gravitons, than towards it, how can a massive heavenly body function as a gravitational lens which can focus the light of a distant star?
It is true that helical wave photons are not deflected by a gravitational field, because they do not emit gravitons.
Instead, it is proposed that since a large mass emits a great deal of electromagnetic radiations, including gravitons, the photon density or flux will be maximum near the surface of the body and decrease the further we move away from it, i.e. it produces an electromagnetic field gradient. Consequently, the resultant transparent variable density photon sphere (disregarding its solid core) will function as a spherical lens.
A similar phenomenon occurs during a sunset when the sun can still be seen in full, whereas in reality, it has already sunk below the horizon. In this instance, the earth's atmosphere functions as a variable density gas lens which bends the rays of the sun.
For that matter, if the massive star or galaxy, that functions as a (so called) gravitational lens, was surrounded by a large gas cloud, it would function as a variable density gas lens the same way our earth's atmosphere does.
Finally, the relative velocity of the intervening body, in relation to the object as well as the observer, will affect the speed at which the light of the historic image of the star travels towards the observer to a varying degree, as it constitutes a variable strength moving EFOR.(5)
In summary, it is suggested that the term gravitational lens is a misnomer, since several other physical phenomena will explain its capacity to refract light waves.
It is realized that the above concepts are at variance with current doctrine and consequently will require experimental verification.
At the same time, the proposed theorems do explain a number of physical phenomena for which no logical explanation is currently available.
Consequently, they constitute a major step forward in the history of physics until such time that someone proposes a better unified field theory.
In addition, it is felt that my three papers:
suggest several new areas of research in which it would be possible for small research facilities to make a significant contribution for a minimal outlay of money.
(1) J.L. Gaasenbeek, Helical Particle Waves, ..........
(2) Halliday and Resnick, Second Edition, Fundamentals of Physics, Pages 783-786.
(3) Halliday and Resnick, Second Edition, Fundamentals of Physics, Pages 883-884.
(4) Halliday and Resnick, Second Edition, Fundamentals of Physics, Page 65.
(5) J.L. Gaasenbeek, Frames of Reference, ..........
End of Paper 3 of 5
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